Prostate Cancer / Elevated PSA
1. Hard irregular prostate on DRE- Predictive value of DRE alone is poor so all referrals should include a PSA test.
2. Clinical suspicion of metastatic prostate cancer
3. Raised/rising age specific PSA (2 PSA tests) UTI excluded
- PSAs should be repeated for confirmation ~4 weeks apart. Strenuous activity eg. cycling and ejaculation should be avoided for 48h pre-test (a routine DRE has no significant effect). Where UTI is suspected wait at least 6 weeks before (re)testing. (PSA range on lab report)
Management prior to referral:
- Prostate cancer (PCa) management is contentious. Whilst men are entitled to undertake PSA testing after counselling (NHS PCa Risk management programme) the benefits of population screening are unproven.
- PSA testing should not be undertaken without discussion with the patient.
- Referrals may be made under the 2WW criteria above. However, as the biological rate of progression for PCa is less than other urological malignancies, routine referrals may be more appropriate in some cases.
- Radical curative treatment is usually considered for those with at least 10y life expectancy, typically surgery is undertaken for <70y and radiotherapy <75y olds. Such patients with a PSA in excess of the age specific range, (even if only marginally eg< 10 ug/L) should be referred to consider prostate biopsy. Referral is also appropriate for men in 70s, but they are less likely to have active treatment.
- Those above 80y typically receive hormone therapy only with evidence of metastatic disease, urinary symptoms or a PSA>50 ug/L. In the absence of such suspicions avoid PSA testing (NICE)